“ People look for retreats for themselves, in the country, by the coast, or in the hills . . . There is nowhere that a person can find a more peaceful and trouble-free retreat than in his own mind. . . . So constantly give yourself this retreat, and renew yourself. ”
— MARCUS AURELIUS
Media of today is playing an outstanding role in creating and shaping of public opinion and strengthening of society. Media is the sword arm of democracy. Media acts as watchdog to protect public interest against malpractice and create public awareness.
Our iOH Join Us! campaign launched on Monday 5th November 2018…
New members and students can now join via this website: https://ioh.life/
Posted by C. Sanders (13/11/2018)
Icy conditions and winter weather
The HSE, (2018) state that “slip and trip accidents increase during the Autumn and Winter season for a number of reasons: there is less daylight, leaves fall onto paths and become wet and slippery and cold weather spells cause ice and snow to build up on paths. There are effective actions that you can take to reduce the risk of a slip or trip. Regardless of the size of your site, always ensure that regularly used walkways are promptly tackled.”
OHS Statistics show that there are excess winter mortality in England and Wales. It is clear that more people die in the winter than the summer.
In the 2016 to 2017 winter period, there were an estimated 34,300 excess winter deaths (EWDs) in England and Wales.
Over one-third of all excess winter deaths were caused by respiratory diseases in England and Wales in 2016 to 2017.
HSE advises workplace to consider the following issues during the winter months:
What will winter be like? and how do workplaces need to prepare?
Cite this post: Sanders, C. (2018) “What will winter be like? and how do workplaces need to prepare” https://ioh.life 13th November 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Weather and climate change information can be found at www.metoffice.gov.uk.
The temperature in an indoor workplace is covered by the Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992, which place a legal obligation on employers to provide a ‘reasonable’ temperature in the workplace.
The Management of Health and Safety at Work Regulations 1999 require employers to make a suitable assessment of the risks to the health and safety of their employees, and take action where necessary and where reasonably practicable.
- The law doesn’t state what the minimum or maximum temperature should be.
- Employers should provide a ‘reasonable’ temperature in the workplace.
- Employers should have a risk assessment for the health and safety of their employees to assess and control risks in the workplace. The workplace temperature is a potential hazard that employers should address.
- Employers will need to include in any assessment the risks of outdoor working .
Employers need to assess the risks posed by ice, frost and snow in the same way all other workplace risks are assessed. Employers then need to implement appropriate systems and controls.
The unpredictability of the weather adds an element of uncertainty that makes it important to plan ahead and monitor any warning signs that conditions may change.
‘Keep Warm Keep Well’ is part of Public Health England’s cold weather plan, which aims to protect people’s health and reduce harm from severe cold.
Minimum and maximum workplace temperature
The Workplace (Health, Safety and Welfare) Regulations 1992 states the employer should maintain a reasonable workplace temperature, but it doesn’t specify a maximum temperature. Although the law doesn’t state a minimum temperature, the temperature in workrooms should normally be at least 16 degrees Celsius, or 13 degrees Celsius if a lot of the work is physical. Although, these temperatures are not a legal requirement; the employer has a duty to determine what reasonable comfort will be in the particular circumstances. The reasonable level will depend on the nature of the workplace such as a bakery, an office, or a warehouse.
Working outdoors can have an impact on an employee’s health and the risks need to be considered and properly managed. When employers are working outdoors the weather can influence their effectiveness. In these circumstances ways of managing the risks may include:
- Ensure the personal protective equipment issued is appropriate.
- Ensure workers are aware and recognise symptoms of heat / cold stress.
- Consider the introduction of more frequent, short rest breaks, encouraging employees to have cold drinks during hot weather and hot drinks during cold weather.
Workers may be more vulnerable to colds, attacks of bronchitis and asthma, or painful, stiff joints and fatigue as they use energy to try to keep warm.
They are also more likely to develop hand–arm vibration syndrome if using pneumatic or vibrating tools.
One of the first effects of mild cold exposure is slower reaction times. People take longer to complete tasks as manual dexterity and concentration deteriorate, which can increase the risk of mistakes and accidents.
Importance of Ethics in OH Practice
Cite this post: Sanders, C. (2018) “Importance of Ethics in OH Practice” https://ioh.life 12th November 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Ethical dilemmas and moral challenges are part of everyday life in occupational health (OH),
all OH practitioners must be competent in dealing with these issues.
Key difficult ethical questions to be continually reflected and acted on by OH practitioners:
- your professional competence and continual professional development
- acknowledging the importance of delivering only OH services which are needed
- delivering efficacious OH services that address service needs
- only define OH service priorities against clients’ needs when planning OH service outputs and not OH professionals’ own needs to stay in the commercial market
Ethical Codes assist OH practitioners to achieve an ethical awareness and sensitivity, and provide a framework for ethical reflection, which is the hallmark of a professional.
Key ethical codes are the
The Code contains the professional standards that registered nurses, midwives and nursing associates must uphold.
November Event: Ethics, the law and data protection in work and health
Posted by C. Sanders 12/11/2018
On Wednesday 28 November 2018 there is a joint meeting between the Faculty of Occupational Medicine (FOM) and the Royal Society of Medicine (RSM).
Information provided here is taken from the RSM website:
“The meeting will consider updated guidance published by the GMC in 2017 on confidentiality and consent, including that relevant to employment, and the introduction of the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) in May 2018, and the Data Protection Act 2018. The updated guidance by the FOM on ethics in occupational health practice will be launched at this meeting.”
- The legal basis for consent, data processing and retention of information under GDPR
- Examples of best practice in keeping with legal and ethical requirements in work and health
- Enabling confident engagement with employers, employees and others on key legal and ethical issues relevant to current practice in work and health
- Enabling confident engagement when giving advice on recruitment and retention of those with long term health conditions and disabilities
- Professor Diana Kloss, a former Employment Tribunal Chair and expert in employment law and data protection
- Dr Steve Boorman, Chair of the FOM Ethics Committee
- Mr Mark Landon, an expert in employment law and a member of the FOM Ethics Committee
RSM member: £30 – £93
Non-member: £30 – £155
|Venue||Royal Society of Medicine|
1 Wimpole Street
Prevention is better than cure
Cite this post: Sanders, C. (2018) “Prevention is better than cure” https://ioh.life 6th November 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
A classic English proverb has been relaunched yesterday by the UK Government.
The Department of Health and Social Care on 5th November 2018, chooses a beautiful proverb to launch its new Public Health Vision… prevention is better than cure.
- What is the history of the saying “prevention is better than cure?”
- “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”. It’s more prudent to head off a health problem beforehand than to deal with it after it occurs. The “prevention is better than cure” proverb has been traced back to ‘De Legibus’ (c. 1240) by English Jurist Henry De Bracton (d. 1268). Another reference dates the idea back to the Roman poet Persius (A.D.c 58), “Meet the malady on its way.” The first English version, “Prevention is so much better than healing because it saves the labor of being sick,” Thomas Adams’s “Works” 1630.
iOH Welcomes this vision and looks forwards to helping create the community that delivers prevention. Quality occupational health MUST be part of the governments vision.
Life satisfaction is associated with occupational injury in men
Cite this post: Sanders, C. (2018) “Life satsifaction is associated with occupational injury in men” https://ioh.life 26th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
In 2012, 10,482 workers were invited to fill out a self-reporting questionnaire that addressed personal and occupational characteristics, and occupational injury, and included The Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). A second survey was conducted on workers and they were asked to complete to a self-reporting questionnaire that addressed occupational injury. This study indicates the risk of occupational injury is higher in workers not satisfied with life, and suggests paying more attention to satisfaction with life may promote worker health and minimize socioeconomic and productivity problems.
Sung-Min, P., Hwan-Cheol K., Shin-Goo. P., et al. (2018) Satisfaction with life and the risk of occupational injury, Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 30:49. Published online: 2nd August 2018
How Mindfulness Began
Cite this post: Sanders, C. (2018) “How mindfulness began” https://ioh.life 26th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
In 1979, Jon Kabat-Zinn started a stress-reduction clinic in Massachusets University Hospital. His idea, whilst meditating, gave him the inspriation to bring meditation into the secular world of a hopital.
In the 1990s, a TV programme introducted mindfulness to a wider audience.
Psychotherapists in the 2000s began to understand that mindfulness interventions may also be useful for reducing and improving pyschological disorders.
In the early 2000s ancient wisdom is combined with 21st century science. Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) (MBCT) is born and is now used to treat a multitude of illlnesses.
Today public interest in mindfulness meditation has soared.
A literature review was conducted in 2010 and found that “mindfulness-based therapy is a promising intervention for treating anxiety and mood problems in clinical populations.”
Mindfulness is being aware of or bringing attention to this moment in time, deliberately and without judging the experience. Try it.
The Millions and Billions of today’s Mental Health
Cite this blog: Sanders, C. (2018) “The Millions and Billions of today’s Mental Health” https://ioh.life 26th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Mental health is not synonymous with mental illness. Mental health is a complex state of psychological and emotional wellbeing. Stress, depression and anxiety causes a huge 12.5 MILLION working days to be lost every year in the UK (Labour Force Survey, 2017) – the single biggest cause of long-term sickness absence.
Centre for Mental Health (2018) states that in 2017 mental health problems at work cost UK economy £34.9 BILLION. The cost of mental health to business is multi-factorial. Besides absenteeism there are other “eeisms” emerging. Presenteeism (people coming into work when they are ill) is emerging as the largest cost as people are present in the workplace but not able to perform their function properly compromising their productivity. CIPD from their May 2018 survey found that presenteeism is common in companies where long working hours are encouraged, and administrative and operational demands are seen as more important than staff morale.
Further, a recent CIPD report 86% of organisations have observed presenteeism over the past 12 months. Leaveism, such as people using annual leave to work, is also a growing problem. According to the latest CIPD Simplyhealth Health and Well-being at Work survey more than two-thirds of respondents (69%) reported that leaveism has occurred in their organisation over the last year.
The Centre for Mental Health, an independent UK charity, estimates that presenteeism can cost UK organisations up to £26 BILLION annually.
Mental health at work: The business costs ten years on updates a calculation made ten years ago, when the cost amounted to £26 BILLION. The cost is now £34.9 BILLION as a result of inflation and a rise in the size of the workforce since 2007. This means that mental health problems cost £1,300 for every employee in the UK economy.
Employers need to invest in both early reactive AND proactive mental health interventions…
The menopause: a time of diverse transition.
Cite this blog: Sanders, C. (2018) “The menopause: a time of diverse transition” https://ioh.life 24th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
The menopause is different for each person as we are all beautifully unique:
- Paste medically history
- Different character/personality
- Family background
Women in Britain are not an homogenous group. The menopause is not the same for everyone.
The following are some key points I concluded from recently reviewing the literature on the “menopause and work”
The UK workplace today is diverse. The menopause is poorly understood, poorly clinically managed, poorly supported and can be a cause of discrimination on the workplace. Although many experience few or no problems around this time, others do. These problems can sometimes arise from the ways work and working conditions affect women’s health around the menopause. OH can make a difference to working women lives. Robust information and research about work and menopause is hard to find. Advice on menopause-related issues and HRT rarely includes work-related problems. OH needs to help to raise awareness and provide appropriate information, guidance and training.
Multi-disciplinary intergrated healthcare provision is required to support every women as she experiences the menopause. Women cannot always make healthy choices at work or at home. Employers should consider the menopause when carrying out and implementing health and safety risk assessments. Whatever the symptoms, help is available in a range of ways. A womens health is their responsibility they need to be supported to be in charge and take care of it. The menopause is a special time of change and a woman’s body deserves some extra tender loving care. More openness is required to help stop the menopause being a taboo subject.
Addressing factors that predict workaholism can help employers to improve work-ability
Cite this blog: Kenyon, L. (2017) “Addressing factors that predict workaholism can help employers to improve work-ability” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Author: Lucy Kenyon (26th November 2017)
A recent study of public sector workers reports that work demand is the highest predictor of workaholism. Employers need to consider this, especially in the current economic climate, when implementing changes relating to productivity demands.
Evidence suggests that social support and targeted counselling have a positive effect on the adverse effects of workaholism and employers can improve this support in the following ways:
- Activities and communications to improve trust in management, which has been shown to improve commitment, motivation and desire to remain in the organisation
- Line manager relationship building
- Buddying by peers within and beyond the direct department
- Buddying by other managers
- Team-working has been found to predict employee commitment and motivation, with employee involvement, empowerment, the offer of fair rewards and job security having significant effects on worker motivation
- Stress management training and workshops
- Allowing flexibility or time off to attend Counselling or investment in an Employee Assistance Programme. Counselling Strategies may include stress management to help workaholics find work they enjoy or work that they perceive as highly meaningful (Bonebright et al., 2000) or counseling that helps them to identify a goal other than work to reduce the extent to which their behavior is perceived as dysfunctional by themselves and by the organization employing them (Naugthon, 1987). Self-validation helps the workaholic learn to validate and value self-related aspect other than work.
Building Resilience in OH Nurses - the starting point
Cite this blog: Sanders, C. (2018) “Building resilience in OH Nurses – the starting point” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Everyone in OH clinical practice has to face a number of stresses, high pressure and difficult situations as part of their role. This puts them at risk of anxiety, depression, stress-related illnesses and even burnout.
Could resilience training and coping mechanisms be vital for managing a work-life balance, for those responsible for delivering high quality OH outcomes and care?
Over the next months I will be exploring this topic to test my hypothesis that
“OH professionals would benefit from resilience training to help minimise the effect of the OH difficulties may have on them.“
Helmreich I, Kunzler A, Chmitorz A, König J, Binder H, Wessa M, Lieb K. Psychological interventions for resilience enhancement in adults. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2017, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD012527. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012527.
Loneliness in the Workplace
Cite this Blog: Sanders, C. (2018) “Loneliness in the Workplace” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Counselling service Relate conducted a survey in 2014 which revealed that 42% of workers do not have a single friend in their workplace.
The Co-op and British Red Cross have established a partnership to tackle loneliness in the UK. The partnership commissioned specialist social research agency Kantar Public to carry out rigorous research into loneliness in UK communities. The research focused on potential triggers for loneliness across life stages and built upon each organisation’s existing insights.
Loneliness and social isolation can affect people of all ages, including children, and can have a significant impact on health and wellbeing.
According to a report by the British Red Cross and Co-op over 9 million people have expressed feelings of loneliness, that’s approximately a fifth of the population.
Flexible working continues to grow in popularity. Shift work, hot desking or spending long periods on the road or working from home can all contribute to restricting the amount of time employees have to interact with one another.
OH needs to advise employers to encourage strong networking in the workplace through the organisation of social activities. This can enable employees to interact in different surroundings, talk to colleagues they may otherwise not interact with and therefore build stronger working relationships.
Businesses and the workplace will form an integral strand of the government’s plan to tackle loneliness and social isolation, it has been announced.
As part of a wider programme of work to support local action on health inequalities, PHE commissioned the UCL Institute of Health Equity to produce a series of practice resources on issues where opportunities exist to reduce inequalities – including reducing social isolation across the life-course.
What are the risks of poor workplace health in London?
Cite this blog: Sanders, C. (2018) “What are the risks of poor workplace health in London” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
PHE London’s Employee Health and Wellbeing report details the key major issues of working in London.
The Mayor set up the London Health Commission in September 2013 to review the health of the capital, from the provision of services to what Londoners themselves can do to help make London the healthiest major global city.
This report proposes tough measures to combat the threats posed by tobacco, alcohol, obesity, lack of exercise and pollution, which harm millions of people. Together the proposals amount to the biggest public health drive in the world. It contains over 60 recommendations and sets out 10 ambitions for the city with targets.
A key aspiration of Better Health for London was to make work a healthy place to be and significant progress has been made; since 2012 the number of working days lost due to sickness absence in London has reduced by 3% from 16.9 million to 13.9 million in 2017.
Drink More Water...
Cite this blog: Sanders, C. (2018) “Drink more water” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Urinary tract infection (UTI) are common.
The vast majority of infections (up to 95%) are caused by one bacteria, E. coli. Signs and symptoms of an infection include pain with urination, increased frequency of urination, and an increased urge to urinate.
A simple change in behaviour could help prevent a common UTI known as recurrent cystitis in women, according to a randomized controlled study published in JAMA Internal Medicine in October 2018.
The study showed that drinking more water daily led to fewer episodes of recurrent cystitis and less need for antibiotics.
Sedentary Work was established as a health hazard in 1958
Cite this blog: Sanders, C. (2018) “Sedentarty work was established as a health hazard in 1958” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Sedentary work is an occupational hazard that has been known about for quite some years…
Morris and Crawford (1958) established the link between a physically inactive job and heart disease their study indicated that ‘Men in physically active jobs [conductors] have a lower incidence of coronary heart-disease in middle age men than have men in physically inactive jobs [drivers]’.
A wonderfully written epidemiology paper – but sadly we haven’t really acted on its findings and we need to.
You can have your cheese and eat it!!!
Cite this blog: Sanders, C. (2018) “You can have your cheese and eat it” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
A USA study has found people who consumed full-fat dairy products were at no greater risk of dying from any cause, including cardiovascular diseases, compared to anyone else.
Researchers found that a high daily intake of regular-fat cheese for 12 weeks did not alter LDL cholesterol (considered the “good” cholesterol) or metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors differently than an equal intake of reduced-fat cheese or an isocaloric amount of carbohydrate-rich foods. NB the isocaloric diet is a moderate-carbohydrate, moderate-fat diet that allows dieters to eat whatever they want as long as they consume the same amount of carbohydrates, proteins and fats daily.
What do UKs Falling Sickness Absence Statistics Mean?
Cite this blog: Sanders, C. (2018) “What do UKs falling sickness absence statistics mean?” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Falling UK sickness absence rates UK 2017 sickness absence figures released by the Office for National Statistics reveal that since 2008 (year of the economic downturn) that the rate has fallen by 0.5 percentage points. Are these figures a sign that UK employees are healthier? certainly improved life expectancy figures support that argument or are they due to other unhealthy factors such as presenteeism and the economic downturn itself?
The inequality of living with severe mental illness .
Sanders, C. (2018) “The inequality of living with severe mental illness” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
The reality of people living with severe mental illness (SMI) is stark. They face one of the greatest health inequality gaps in England (1). Their life expectancy is 15–20 years lower than the general population. The life years lost to them is due to their physical health needs being overlooked.
Over 40% of adults with severe mental illness smoke – smoking is the largest avoidable cause of premature death (1). People with SMI have double the risk of obesity and diabetes, three times the risk of hypertension and metabolic syndrome, and five times the risk of dyslipidaemia (imbalance of lipids in the bloodstream) than the general population (2).
Individuals living with SMI are not consistently being offered appropriate or timely physical health assessments despite their higher risk of poor physical health. They are not being supported to use available health information and advice or to take up tests and interventions that reduce the risk of preventable health conditions.
Improving life expectancy of people living with severe mental illness is a national priority from the Five Year Forward View for mental health. This means providing the relevant health checks AND the interventions and care needed to support their wellbeing (2).
- NHS England. The Five Year Forward View for Mental Health – report from the Mental Health Taskforce. Leeds: NHS England Mental Health Taskforce; 2016.
[Available at: https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/…/Mental-Health-TaskforceFYFV-final.pdf]
- NHS England. Improving physical healthcare for people living with severe mental illness (SMI) in primary care: Guidance for CCGs. Leeds: NHS England Mental Health Taskforce; 2018. https://www.england.nhs.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/improving-physical-health-care-for-smi-in-primary-care.pdf
Evidence base for the benefits of walking
Sanders, C. (2018) “Evidence base for the benefits of walking” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
Walking has a long history as a regular habit of successful, influential people — Queen Elizabeth I and Charles Dickens both used to take a walk every day, and Aristotle was famous for conducting his lectures, pupils in tow, while on the move. People walk for myriad reasons – to improve health with movement and fresh air, to find peace and solitude or to observe nature or cityscapes. There’s no shortage of good reasons to go for a walk.
Wharton’s nano tool focuses on a particular one, and it’s a benefit that is encouraging business leaders like “the CEOs of LinkedIn, Twitter, and Facebook” to start walking, as well: Walking increases your creativity, and can “improve business outcomes” by helping you “come up with more and better ideas and enhance decision making and problem solving.”
Oppezzo, M., & Schwartz, D. L. (2014). Give your ideas some legs: The positive effect of walking on creative thinking. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 40(4), 1142-1152.
Nano Tools for Leaders® was conceived and developed by Deb Giffen, MCC, director of Custom Programs at Wharton Executive Education. Nano Tools for Leaders® is a collaboration between joint sponsors Wharton Executive Education and Wharton’s Center for Leadership and Change Management. This collaboration is led by Professors Michael Useem and John Paul MacDuffie.
Half of all mental illness begins before the age of 14.
Sanders, C. (2018) “Half of all mental illness beging by the age of 14” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
World Mental Health Day (WMHD) – 10th October
The scale of the UK’s mental health problem
- One in four people are affected by a mental illness, according to the NHS, with the number of prescriptions being dispensed in England having doubled in the past decade.
In 2006 slightly more that 31 million anti-depressant prescriptions were dispensed, compared to 64.7 million in 2016 – the fourth highest number for any type of drug.
“40,000 deaths could have been avoided if people with mental health issues had received the same treatment as people presenting with physical symptoms” (NHS England).
The work that OH does is as important as ever. This year’s WMHD theme was set by the World Federation for Mental Health as young people and mental health in a changing world.
Half of all mental illness begins by the age of 14, but most cases go undetected and untreated. In terms of the burden of the disease among adolescents, depression is the third leading cause. Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 15-29 year olds. Harmful use of alcohol and illicit drugs among adolescents is a major issue in many countries and can lead to risky behaviours such as unsafe sex or dangerous driving. Eating disorders are also of concern.
“We are entering an important new chapter for mental health where we now need to turn this unprecedented public awareness into action“
– Paul Farmer, Mind
New Resources available via Mental Health at Work
The Acas framework for positive mental health at work
People managers’ guide to mental health
Wellbeing in the City
Smoking in England hits a new low
Sanders, C. (2018) “Smoking prevalence in England hits a new low” https://ioh.life 16th October 2018 ioh.life/newsroom. Accessed: insert date.
- The workplace has potential as a setting through which large groups of people can be reached to encourage smoking cessation.
- There is an ever widening gap between people in routine and manual occupations and those in managerial and professional posts.
- The workplace provides large groups of smokers who can easily be reached and helped, using proven methods.
- It is in the employers’ interests to improve the health of their workforce.
- Cahill K, Lancaster T. Workplace interventions for smoking cessation. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2014, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD003440. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003440.pub4.
- Sorensen G, Lando HA, Pechacek TF. Promoting smoking cessation at the workplace. Results of a randomized controlled intervention study. Journal of Occupational Medicine 1993;35(2):121‐126.
How to reference
What is referencing?
Referencing is the process of acknowledging other people’s work when you have used it in your assignment or research. It allows the reader to locate your source material as quickly and easily as possible so that they can read these sources themselves and verify the validity of your arguments. Referencing provides the link between what you write and the evidence on which it is based.
You identify the sources that you have used by citing them in the text of your assignment (called citations or in-text citations) and referencing them at the end of your assignment (called the reference list or end-text citations). The reference list only includes the sources cited in your text. It is not the same thing as a bibliography, which uses the same referencing style, but also includes all material, for example background readings, used in the preparation of your work.
How to cite web pages with individual authors
- Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)
- Title of web page (in italics)
- Available at: URL
- (Accessed: date)
Sanders (2018) provided information regarding smoking rates in England.
Sanders, C.J. (2018) Smoking in England hits a new low. Available at: https://www.ioh.life/ (Accessed: 24 October 2018).
How to cite Blogs
- Author of message
- Year that the site was published/last updated (in round brackets)
- Title of message (in single quotation marks)
- Title of internet site (in italics)
- Day/month of posted message
- Available at: URL
- (Accessed: date)
How to cite photographs / images
The images available here in the News Room are either (i) purchased from Shutterstock or are (ii) the photographs or original artwork created by the blog author.
NB For images that you download onto edevices, and to which you still have access, you should replace accessed date with downloaded date.
- Year of publication (in round brackets)
- Title of photograph (in italics)
- Available at: URL
- (Accessed/downloaded: date)